The addition of constitutes to water, air or land, which adversely alter the natural quality of our environment is called pollution. An undesirable variation in the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of our water, air and land that may or will harmfully affect human life or that of desirable species, our industrial processes, living conditions and cultural assets, or that may or will waste or deteriorate our raw material resources.
Water pollution refers to any types of aquatic contamination of river and lake enriched with nutrients from sewage or fertilizers. A body of water poisoned by toxic chemicals which eliminate many living organisms or even excludes all forms of life. Composition of plants and animals, decay, volcanic eruptions, coastal and cliff erosion, landslides and soil erosion are the natural causes which create water pollution. Like that anthropogenic sources are also caused for water pollution. These sources include industry, urban, agricultural and cultural sources etc.
Various water pollutants are caused for water pollution. For this pollutant situation water pollution divided into various types. These are: Industrial, agricultural, Urban, Natural, Physical & Chemical Pollutants.
Effects of Water Pollution
On Animals: Water pollution affects aquatic organisms directly or indirectly in various ways. Specific toxic ingredients which may injure the gills and other external structures cause death of animals. Animals are affected indirectly on destruction of habitual food organisms. Birds are kicked when they feed on fishes reared in polluted waters.
On Plants: Irrigation by polluted water affects the plants to a great extent resulting in their yellowish colouration and defoliation.
On Human Beings: Diseases like cholera, typhoid, dysentery, jaundice and diarrhea and skin diseases are the infectious diseases caused by drinking polluted or contaminated water. Heavy metals cause many more serious diseases like Minimart disease caved by mercury.
On Ecosystem: Characters of aquatic environment are changed by water pollution over a period of time. Thus with gradual process of ageing, deep, clear lakes may be sediment which become unfavorable for plants, animals and other microorganisms which die out finally.