NATO, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization which is also called the North Atlantic Alliance. It is an intergovernmental military alliance among 28 European countries and 2 North American countries. After World War II, the organization implements the North Atlantic Treaty, signed 4 April 1949 with the aim to guaranteeing the freedom and security of its members through political and military means.
In 1945, after World War II, Western Europe was militarily weak and also economically exhausted. On the other hand at the same time newly powerful communist parties had arisen in France and Italy. By contrast, the Soviet Union had emerged from the war with its armies dominating all the states of central and eastern Europe, and by 1948communists under Moscow’s sponsorship had consolidates their control of the governments of their countries and suppressed all noncommunist political activity.
As for military recovery, under the Brussels Treaty of 1948, the United Kingdom, France and the Low Countries Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg concluded a collective defense agreement called the Western European Union. For economic development in 1948 the United States launched the Marshall plan. Through it massive amounts of economic aid to the countries of western and southern Europe on the condition that they cooperate with each other and engage in joint planning to hasten their mutual recovery.
The main goal of NATO is expressed in Article 5 of the North Atlantic Treaty, in which the signatory members consent on it. “ An armed attack against one or more of them in Europe or North America shall be considered an attack against them all; and consequently they agree that, if such an armed attack occurs, each of them, in exercise of the right of individual or collective self-defense recognized by Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations, will assist the party or parties so attacked by taking forthwith, individually and in concert with the other parties, such action as it deems necessary, including the use of armed force, to restore and maintain the security of the North Atlantic area.”